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February 24, 2022 at 11:32 pm #107342Ng Teck SenParticipant
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was a disputatious topic since long time ago which some researchers such as Pettegrew, Keshavan, and Minshew (1993) who put forward the statement of AD was origin by nature factors while some researchers such as. Fulcher, Alosco, and Miller (2014) propose that AD was cause by nurture factors. Even though there are more than 70 diseases that lead to dementia, AD is the most serious compare to the other disease and accounts for 50-70% of dementia (Akter, Rani, Nordin, Rahman, Aznan & Rathor, 2012). The characteristics of AD which involve the patients in numerous areas has become a medical and social challenge for nowadays society, follow with the need for diversity of professional development in fulfilling the need of patients and their caregivers (Cobos & Rodríguez, 2012). AD is considered as multifactorial disease, with no single cause known, and some modifiable and non-modifiable risk elements are connected with the development and progression of AD (Korolev, 2014).
Nature element that lead to the causes of AD is biological factor such as death of brain cells, neurodegenerative type of dementia and etcetera. AD is characterized by an irreparable, continuous loss of memory and cognitive skills which can occur in rare familial cases in the third decade (Bekris, Yu, Bird & Tsuang, 2010). The phosphomonoesters (PME) in the brain of AD patients is increase at the beginning of the course of AD, follow with the enhanced of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and likely reflect the commencement of membrane degenerative changes (Pettegrew, Keshavan & Minshew, 1993).
AD is a continuous neurodegenerative brain disorder which causes a significant disruption of ordinary brain’s structure and its function (Korolev, 2014).The changes of AD patients are distinct with other brain’s disease patients which the PME and PME were in the opposite direction changes (Pettegrew, Keshavan & Minshew, 1993). Besides, A study conducted by Munoz and Feldman (2000) had found that the critical features of the patients. The cerebral cortex of AD patients was peppered with neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. (Munoz & Feldman, 2000). Hence, AD was known as dementia related with these histopathologic abnormalities that existed. At present, histopathological examination toward the brain using modern molecular-biological ways beneath standardized situations is the ‘gold standard’ for AD diagnosis (Jellinger, 2015).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation
Furthermore, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is 1 of the origin of AD. DNA methylation is a major regulator of transcriptional activity, and divergence in the distribution of the epigenetic mark that involved in numerous of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’ s disease and etcetera (Sanchez-Mut et al., 2013). In this study, DNA methylation clustering analyses have indicated cerebral cortex as distinct branch that relevant to the understanding of AD due to that region is most strongly effected in the neurological disorder (Sanchez-Mut et al., 2013). Therefore, the researchers have made a detailed comparison of DNA methylation patterns in cerebral cortex and the other part of the brain, the latter being regions which are not targeted in AD. The mice samples had been utilized in this study and the result linked the presence of hyper-methylation events in cortex from Alzheimer’s mouse to the relevant transcripts and the proteins which detected by western blot of F2rl2, Sorbs3 and Spnb4 genes and immunofluorescence of Tbxa2r
From the result of mice samples study above, the urge to continue the investigation on human biological samples whether epigenetic changes happened in AD patients by the researchers is enhanced. The study was continue by using human biological samples and same trend was observed.
Sex and gender
As there was a finding which the prevalence, incidence of AD, brain structure and function were vary by the sex and gender as well (Mielke, Vemuri & Rocca, 2014). The women tend to be higher prevalence of AD than men may be due to the live longer than men on average. According to Mielke, Vemuri and Rocca (2014), almost two-thirds of the individuals diagnosed are female. Additionally, gender is referring to the cultural and psychosocial elements that affects our identity and change our risk of disease.
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