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March 3, 2022 at 7:10 pm #107803Ng Teck SenParticipant
On the other hand, for the studies on nurture contributors of AD such as stress, environment, and life style have been studied year by year to obtain new intervention in dealing with AD. The finding of monozygotic twins by a group of researchers that not necessarily both have AD suggests that environmental factors have involved in development of AD as well (Munoz & Feldman, 2000).
Daily physical activates also play a role in the AD. There were evidence showed that among elderly patients demonstrates that higher level of daily physical activity will lead to drop of the risk for AD (Fulcher et al., 2014). The participants in the study of Fulcher and his career in year 2014 were around 50-85 years old, have a documented history of Heart Failure (HF) and the participants with a history of neurological disorder such as stroke and AD as well. Interestingly, this study have showed that participants who were older adults with HF that demonstrates higher levels of daily physical activity were better cognitive performance. This study provided a path for further studies to clarify the mechanisms linking physical activity and cognitive function in HF patients and the effectiveness of improvement in cognitive function with the interventions of enhancing activity levels toward the population. Moreover, AD impact the patients in the variety areas, the considering on other alternate behavior besides pharmacological treatment and biological discover, although seeming to ease the development knowledge toward the AD (Cobos & Rodríguez, 2012). In short, researches toward the nurture contributor were still limited currently. For example, the study of relationship between Education and Dementia in year 2011 had reported that there were not clear evidence to show that the AD prevalence studies have larger risk compared to AD incidence studies (Sharp & Gatz, 2011). More investigation should be should be carried on instead of the focus on biological aspects only.
Education level of an individual have contribute to the AD causes too. Throughout the study of Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease by Yaakov Stern in year 2012 have indicate the relevant between the academic level and AD pathology. The study suggested that an individual with higher level of cognitive reserve ought to have greater AD pathology. The positron emission tomography (PET) scan illustrate the blood flow in the parietotemporal area for the researcher to study on it. The study have the finding that the higher the educational level of AD patients, the darkest blue in the parietotemporal area. This significant that the lower level of blood flow and have more advanced AD pathology compare to the lowest educational level AD patients (Stern, 2012).
According to the World Alzheimer Report by Wimo and Prince (2010), the developed countries which provide high incomes for the society tend to be less people diagnosis with dementia compare with developing countries. The classification of countries is using the World Bank Atlas method which $995 or less consider as low income; $996 – $3,945 is lower middle income; $3,946 – $12,195 is upper middle income and $12,196 or more is high income.
In the nutshell, both nature and nurture have the different perspectives regard the contribution to the AD. However, the prevention and intervention toward AD were still limited and further development ought to be focus on it to bring new hope for latest generation instead of keep discover the main causes without improvement in dealing with it as according to World Alzheimer report (Wimo & Prince, 2010), by year 2030 the affected AD’s population will be increased up to 65.7 million, rising to 1154.million by year 2050. Currently, there is no cure for AD, and drug therapy for the AD is still in its beginning step (Korolev, 2014). It is a critical public health issue in USA and other countries with a serious impacts toward nowadays community. Together with the costs created by the disease, approximate 604billion dollar worldwide, has led the conclusion that AD is the most significant crisis in socio-medical field (Cobos & Rodríguez, 2012).
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